|1920 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2673|
|Balinese saka calendar||1841–1842|
|British Regnal year||10 Geo. 5 – 11 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||己未年 (Earth Goat)|
4616 or 4556
— to —
庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
4617 or 4557
|- Vikram Samvat||1976–1977|
|- Shaka Samvat||1841–1842|
|- Kali Yuga||5020–5021|
|Japanese calendar||Taishō 9|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 9|
|Thai solar calendar||2462–2463|
2046 or 1665 or 893
— to —
2047 or 1666 or 894
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to .|
1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1920th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 920th year of the 2nd millennium, the 20th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1920, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 1 – Polish–Soviet War in 1920: The Russian Red Army increases troops along the Polish border from 4 divisions to 20.
- January 2 – First Red Scare in the United States: The second of the Palmer Raids takes place with another 4,025 suspected communists and anarchists arrested and held without trial in several cities.
- January 7
- January 10
- January 11 – The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic is recognised de facto by European powers in Versailles.
- January 13 – The New York Times ridicules American rocket scientist Robert H. Goddard, which it will rescind following the launch of Apollo 11 in 1969.
- January 16
- January 17 – Prohibition in the United States begins, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution coming into effect.
- January 19 – The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is founded.
- January 21 – The final session of the Paris Peace Conference is held, even though peace treaties with Hungary and Turkey remain to be concluded. The United States does not conclude its own treaty with Germany until August 25, 1921.
- January 22 – The Australian Country Party is officially formed.
- January 23 – The Netherlands refuses to extradite ex-Emperor Wilhelm II; on May 15 he moves into Huis Doorn in the country where he remains permanently in exile.
- January 28 – El Tercio de Extranjeros (the "Regiment of Foreigners"), later the Spanish Legion, is established by decree of King Alfonso XIII of Spain.
- January 30 – A pro wrestling match in which Joe Stecher defeats Earl Caddock in the United States is filmed for later viewing by cinema audiences, the oldest existing movie of professional wrestling.
- February 1 – The South African Air Force (SAAF) is established, the second autonomous Air Force in the world, after the Royal Air Force (RAF).
- February 2
- February 7 – Admiral Kolchak and Viktor Pepelyayev are executed by firing squad near Irkutsk.
- February 9 – The Svalbard Treaty, signed by members of the League of Nations in Paris, recognises the sovereignty of Norway over the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard (at this time called Spitzbergen), while giving the other signatories economic rights in the islands.
- February 10 – General Józef Haller first performs Poland's Wedding to the Sea, a symbolic celebration of the restitution of Polish access to the Baltic Sea.
- February 12–24 – Conference of London: Leaders of the United Kingdom, France and Italy meet to discuss the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
- February 13 – Switzerland rejoins the League of Nations.
- February 14 – The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago.
- February 17 – A woman named Anna Anderson tries to commit suicide in Berlin and is taken to a mental hospital where she claims she is Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia.
- February 20 – 1920 Gori earthquake: An earthquake hits Gori in the Democratic Republic of Georgia, killing 114.
- February 21 – The island province of Marinduque in the Philippines archipelago is founded.
- February 22 – In Emeryville, California, the first dog racing track to employ an imitation rabbit opens.
- February 24 – Adolf Hitler presents his National Socialist Program in Munich to the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), which renames itself as the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei).
- March 1
- March 7 – The Syrian National Congress proclaims Syria independent, with Faisal I of Iraq as king.
- March 10
- March 13–17 – Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz's Kapp Putsch (an attempted coup in Germany) briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin, but fails due to public resistance and a general strike.
- March 15 – The Ruhr Red Army, a communist army 60,000 men strong, is formed in Germany.
- March 15–16 – Constantinople is occupied by British Empire forces, acting for the Allied Powers against the Turkish National Movement. Retrospectively, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey regards this as the dissolution of the Ottoman regime in Istanbul.
- March 18 – Greece begins using the Gregorian calendar.
- March 19 – The United States Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
- March 23 – Admiral Miklós Horthy declares that Hungary is a monarchy, without anyone on the throne.
- March 25 – Irish War of Independence: British recruits to the Royal Irish Constabulary begin to arrive in Ireland. They become known from their improvised uniforms as the "Black and Tans".
- March 26 – The German government asks France for permission to use its own troops against the rebellious Ruhr Red Army, in the French-occupied area.
- March 28 – The 1920 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak hits the Great Lakes region and Deep South of the United States.
- March 29 – Sir William Robertson is promoted to Field Marshal, the first man to rise from private (enlisted 1877) to the highest rank in the British Army.
- April 2 – The German army marches to the Ruhr, to fight the Ruhr Red Army.
- April 4 – 1920 Palestine riots: Violence erupts between Arab and Jewish residents in Jerusalem; 9 are killed, 216 injured.
- April 6 – The short-lived Far Eastern Republic is declared, in eastern Siberia.
- April 11 – Mexican Revolution: álvaro Obregón flees from Mexico City (during a trial intended to ruin his reputation) to Guerrero, where he joins Fortunato Maycotte.
- April 19–26 – San Remo conference: Representatives of Italy, France, the United Kingdom and Japan meet to determine the League of Nations mandates for administration of territories, following the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
- April 19 – Germany and Soviet Russia agree to the exchange of prisoners of war.
- April 20
- April 23 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in Ankara. It denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI and announces a temporary constitution.
- April 24 – Polish–Soviet War: Polish and anti-Soviet Ukrainian troops attack the Red Army in Soviet Ukraine.
- April 26 – The Khorezm People's Soviet Republic is officially created by Soviet Russia, as the successor to the Khanate of Khiva.
- April 28 – The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic is officially created.
- May 2 – The first game of Negro National League baseball is played, in Indianapolis, Indiana.
- May 3 – A Bolshevik coup fails, in the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
- May 7
- Polish–Soviet War: Polish troops occupy Kiev. The government of the Ukrainian People's Republic returns to the city.
- Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza leaves Mexico City in a large train.
- Treaty of Moscow (1920): Soviet Russia recognizes the independence of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, only to invade the country six months later.
- May 15 – Russian Revolution: Russian White soldier Maria Bochkareva is executed in Soviet Russia.
- May 16
- Canonization of Joan of Arc: Over 30,000 people attend the ceremony in Rome, including 140 descendants of Joan of Arc's family. Pope Benedict XV presides over the rite, for which the interior of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is richly decorated.
- A referendum in Switzerland favors joining the League of Nations.
- May 17
- May 19 – Mexican Revolution: álvaro Obregón's troops enter Mexico City.
- May 20 – Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza arrives in San Antonio Tlaxcalantongo; troops of Rodolfo Herrero attack him at night and shoot him.
- May 24 – Venustiano Carranza is buried in Mexico City; all of his mourning allies are arrested. Adolfo de la Huerta is elected provisional president.
- May 26 – Ganja revolt: Anti-Soviet opposition in the Azerbaijan SSR launches an abortive revolt in Ganja.
- May 27 – Tomá? Garrigue Masaryk becomes president of Czechoslovakia.
- May 29 – Floods at Louth, Lincolnshire in England kill 23.
- June 4 – Treaty of Trianon: Peace is restored between the Allied Powers and Hungary, which loses 72% of its territory.
- June 5 – Bolshevik cavalry break through Polish and Ukrainian lines south of Kiev, precipitating eventual withdrawal.
- June 12 – Polish–Soviet War: The Red Army retakes Kiev.
- June 13
- June 15
- June 22 – Greek Summer Offensive: Greece attacks Turkish troops.
- July 1 – Germany declares its neutrality in the war between Poland and Soviet Russia.
- July 2 – Polish–Soviet War: The Red Army continues its offensive into Poland.
- July 7 – Arthur Meighen becomes Canada's ninth prime minister.
- July 11 – The East Prussian plebiscite is held.
- July 12 – Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty: The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic recognizes independent Lithuania.
- July 19–August 7 – The Second Congress of the Communist International takes place in Saint Petersburg and Moscow; the notorious Twenty-one Conditions are adopted.
- July 20 – The United Kingdom cedes its brief control of the key Black Sea port of Batum to the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
- July 21 – The Interallied Mission to Poland takes place.
- July 22 – Polish–Soviet War: Poland sues for peace with Soviet Russia (which refuses).
- July 24 – Battle of Maysalun: The French defeat the Syrian army, whose leader Yusuf al-'Azma is killed. French troops occupy Damascus and depose Faisal I of Syria as king.
- July 26 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa takes over Sabina and contacts Mexican President de la Huerta to offer his conditional surrender, which he signs on July 28.
- July 29 – The United States Bureau of Reclamation begins construction of the Link River Dam, as part of the Klamath Reclamation Project.
- July 30–August 8 – The 1st World Scout Jamboree is held at Olympia, London.
- July 31
- Irish-born Australian Catholic Bishop Daniel Mannix is detained onboard ship off Queenstown and prevented from landing in Ireland or from speaking in the main Irish Catholic communities elsewhere in the United Kingdom.
- France prohibits the sale or prescription of contraceptives.
- Representatives of British revolutionary socialist groups meet at the Cannon Street Hotel in London and agree to form the Communist Party of Great Britain.
- August 3 – Irish War of Independence: Catholics riot in Belfast, in protest at the continuing British Army presence.
- August 10 – Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI's representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres with the Allied Powers, confirming arrangements for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
- August 11 – Bolshevik Russia recognizes independent Latvia.
- August 13–25 – Polish–Soviet War – Battle of Warsaw: The Red Army is defeated.
- August 13 – Irish War of Independence: The Restoration of Order in Ireland Act (passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom) receives Royal Assent, providing for Irish Republican Army activists to be tried by court-martial, rather than by jury in criminal courts.
- August 19–25 – Second Silesian Uprising: The Poles in Upper Silesia rise up against the Germans.
- August 20 – The first commercial radio station in the United States, 8MK (WWJ), begins operations in Detroit. It is owned by the Detroit News, the first U.S. radio station owned by a newspaper.
- August 26 – The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing women's suffrage.
- August 28–September 2 – Bukhara operation: The Russian Red Army and Young Bukharians overthrow the Emirate of Bukhara, leading to the establishment of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.
- September 5 – Presidential elections begin in Mexico.
- September 8 – Gabriele D'Annunzio proclaims the Italian Regency of Carnaro, in the city of Fiume.
- September 12 – The position of Patriarch of the Serbs is re-established as the authority over the Serbian Orthodox Church, almost 156 years to the day after it was abolished by the Ottoman Empire in 1766.
- September 16 – Wall Street bombing: A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City, killing 38 and injuring 400.
- September 16 – The Latvian Agrarian Reform Law of 1920 is adopted by the Constitutional Assembly of Latvia.
- September 17 – The National Football League is established, as the American Professional Football Association.
- September 20 – The first soldier joins El Tercio de Extranjeros, (the "Regiment of Foreigners", later the Spanish Legion). Under the command of José Millán Astray and Francisco Franco, its first duties are against Rif rebels, in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco.
- September 21 – The Communist Party of Uruguay is founded.
- September 22 – The London Metropolitan Police forms the Flying Squad, a motorised mobile detective patrol unit.
- September 27 – Polish–Soviet War: Soviet Russia sues for peace with Poland.
- September 29
- October 3 – The Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe horse race first runs in Paris.
- October 9 – Polish–Lithuanian War: Polish troops take Vilnius.
- October 10 – Carinthian Plebiscite: A large part of Carinthia Province votes to become part of Austria, rather than Yugoslavia.
- October 14 – A peace treaty between the Soviet and the Finnish governments is concluded at Tartu.
- October 16 – Polish–Soviet War: After the Polish army captures Tarnopol, Dubno, Minsk and Dryssa, the ceasefire is enforced.
- October 18 – Thousands of unemployed demonstrate in London; 50 are injured.
- October 26 – álvaro Obregón is announced the elected president of Mexico.
- October 27
- October 30 – The Communist Party of Australia is founded in Sydney.
- November 2
- 1920 United States presidential election: Republican U. S. Senator Warren G. Harding defeats Democratic Governor of Ohio James M. Cox and Socialist Eugene V. Debs, in the first national U.S. election in which women have the right to vote.
- In the United States, KDKA AM of Pittsburgh (owned by Westinghouse) starts broadcasting as a commercial radio station. The first broadcast is the results of the presidential election.
- Meiji Shrine, one of many landmark spots in Tokyo, is officially built in Japan.
- November 11 – The Unknown Warrior is buried in Westminster Abbey.
- November 12 – Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes sign the Treaty of Rapallo.
- November 13 – The White Army's last units and civilian refugees are evacuated from the Crimea on board 126 ships, the remnants of the Russian Imperial Navy, to Turkey, Tunisia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, accompanied by wide-scale civilian massacres. The total number of evacuees amounts to approximately 150,000 people, of which 20% are civilians.
- November 14 – The Edmonton Symphony Orchestra holds its first concert.
- November 15 – In Geneva, the first assembly of the League of Nations is held.
- November 16 – Queensland and Northern Territory Aviation Services (Qantas) is founded by Hudson Fysh and Paul McGinness.
- November 17 – The council of the League of Nations accepts the constitution for the Free City of Danzig.
- November 20 – Prince Arthur of Connaught is appointed the 3rd Governor-General of the Union of South Africa.
- November 21 – Irish War of Independence: Bloody Sunday: The Irish Republican Army, on the instructions of Michael Collins, shoot dead the "Cairo gang", 14 British undercover agents in Dublin, most in their homes. Later that day in retaliation, the Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary open fire on a crowd at a Gaelic Athletic Association Football match in Croke Park, resulting in 14 deaths with 60 wounded. Three men are shot this night in Dublin Castle "while trying to escape".
- November 28 – Irish War of Independence – Kilmichael Ambush: The flying column of the 3rd Cork Brigade of the Irish Republican Army, led by Tom Barry, ambushes two lorries carrying men of the Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary at Kilmichael, County Cork, killing 17 (with 3 of its men also dying), which leads to official reprisals.
- December 1 – The Mexican Revolution ends with a new regime coming to power, which couples with the end of the Old West.
- December 3 – Following more than a month of the Turkish–Armenian War, the Turkish-dictated Treaty of Alexandropol is concluded.
- December 5 – A referendum in Greece is favorable to the reinstatement of the monarchy.
- December 10 – Irish War of Independence: Martial law is declared in Counties Cork, Kerry, Limerick and Tipperary.
- December 11 – The Burning of Cork in Ireland: British forces set fire to some 5 acres (20,000 m2) of the centre of Cork, including the City Hall, in reprisal attacks, after a British auxiliary is killed in a guerilla ambush.
- December 13 – Confectionery company Haribo is founded in Bonn, Germany.
- December 15–22 – The Brussels Conference establishes a timetable for German war reparations, intended to extend for over 42 years.
- December 16
- December 17 – South Africa is granted a League of Nations Class C mandate over South West Africa.
- December 22 – The 8th Congress of Soviets of the Russian SFSR adopts the GOELRO plan, the major plan of the economical development of the country.
- December 23
- The United Kingdom and France ratify the border between French-held Syria and British-held Palestine.
- The Government of Ireland Act 1920, passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, receives Royal Assent from George V, providing for the partition of Ireland into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, with separate parliaments, granting a measure of home rule.
- December 25 – The Rosicrucian Fellowship's spiritual healing temple The Ecclesia is dedicated at Mount Ecclesia, Oceanside, California.
- Hydrocodone, a narcotic analgesic closely related to codeine, is first synthesized in Germany, by Carl Mannich and Helene L?wenheim.
- Approximate date – The HIV pandemic almost certainly originates in Léopoldville, modern-day Kinshasa, the capital of the Belgian Congo.
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 1
- January 2
- January 3
- January 4 – David Musuguri, Tanzanian soldier and military officer
- January 5 – Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli, Italian pianist (d. 1995)
- January 6
- January 7
- January 8
- January 9
- January 10
- January 11 – Jarbas Passarinho, Brazilian military officer, politician (d. 2016)
- January 12
- January 13 – Jahangir Amuzegar, Iranian economist, academic and politician (d. 2018)
- January 14
- January 15
- January 16
- January 19
- January 20
- January 21 – Errol Barrow, 1st Prime Minister of Barbados (d. 1987)
- January 22 – Alf Ramsey, English footballer, manager (d. 1999)
- January 23
- January 24
- January 25 – Alicia Montoya, Mexican actress (d. 2002)
- January 26
- January 27
- January 29 – Balantrapu Rajanikanta Rao, Indian writer (d. 2018)
- January 30
- January 31 – James Yimm Lee, American martial arts pioneer, teacher, author and publisher (d. 1972)
- February 2
- February 3
- February 4 – Giriraj Kishore, Indian activist, politician (d. 2014)
- February 5 – Frank Muir, British actor, comedy writer and raconteur (d. 1998)
- February 6 – Gordon Van Wylen, American physicist and author
- February 7
- February 8
- February 11
- February 12
- February 13
- February 16 – Anna Mae Hays, American general (d. 2018)
- February 17
- February 18
- February 20 – Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington (d. 1948)
- February 22 – Burt L. Talcott, American politician (d. 2016)
- February 23 – Paul Gérin-Lajoie, Canadian lawyer and politician (d. 2018)
- February 24 – Fortune FitzRoy, Duchess of Grafton, English noble
- February 26
- February 28
- February 29
- March 3
- March 4
- March 5
- March 6
- March 8 – Ingemar Hedberg, Swedish canoeist (d. 2019)
- March 9
- March 10
- March 11
- March 14 – Hank Ketcham, American cartoonist (d. 2001)
- March 15
- March 16 – Leo McKern, Australian actor (d. 2002)
- March 17 – Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, founder, 2-time President & 2nd Prime Minister of Bangladesh (d. 1975)
- March 19
- March 20
- March 22
- March 23
- March 24 – Corbin Harney, elder and spiritual leader of the Newe (Western Shoshone) people (d. 2007)
- March 25 – Patrick Troughton, English actor (d. 1987)
- March 27
- March 29
- March 31
- April 1
- April 2 – Jack Webb, American actor, director and producer (d. 1982)
- April 3 – Ehsan Yarshater, Iranian scholar (d. 2018)
- April 4 – éric Rohmer, French film director (d. 2010)
- April 5
- April 6 – Edmond H. Fischer, Swiss American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- April 7 – Ravi Shankar, Indian sitar player (d. 2012)
- April 8 – Carmen McRae, American jazz singer (d. 1994)
- April 11
- April 12
- April 13
- April 14
- April 15
- April 16 – Prince George Valdemar of Denmark (d. 1986)
- April 19
- April 20 – John Paul Stevens, American judge, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (d. 2019)
- April 21 – Edmund Adamkiewicz, German footballer (d. 1991)
- April 22 – Valeri Petrov, Bulgarian poet (d. 2014)
- April 23 – Eric Yarrow, English businessman (d. 2018)
- April 25 – Robert Q. Lewis, American radio and television personality (d. 1991)
- April 26 – Padú del Caribe, Aruban musician and songwriter (d. 2019)
- April 27 – Guido Cantelli, Italian conductor (d. 1956)
- April 29 – Harold Shapero, American composer (d. 2013)
- April 30 – Diet Eman, Dutch author and resistance worker (d. 2019)
- May 2
- May 5 – Jon Naar, British-American author, photographer (d. 2017)
- May 6 – Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, first Prime Minister of Fiji and President of Fiji (d. 2004)
- May 7 – Rendra Karno, Indonesian actor (d. 1985)
- May 8 – Touko Laaksonen, Finnish artist (pseudonym Tom of Finland) (d. 1991)
- May 8 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer (d. 1996)
- May 9
- May 11
- May 12
- May 13 – Gareth Morris, British flautist (d. 2007)
- May 15
- May 17 – Lydia Wideman, Finnish Olympic cross-country skier (d. 2019)
- May 18
- May 19 – Tina Strobos, Dutch psychiatrist known for rescuing Jews during World War II (d. 2012)
- May 20
- May 22 – Helen Andelin, American author (d. 2009)
- May 23 – Helen O'Connell, American singer (d. 1993)
- May 25 – Arthur Wint, Jamaican runner (d. 1992)
- May 26
- May 28
- May 29
- May 30
- June 1 – Amos Yarkoni, Israeli soldier (d. 1991)
- June 2
- June 4 – Lynda Adams, Canadian diver (d. 1997)
- June 5 – Marion Motley, American football player (d. 1999)
- June 6 – Jan Rube?, Czech-Canadian bass opera singer, actor (d. 2009)
- June 10 – Ruth Graham, American evangelist, wife of Billy Graham (d. 2007)
- June 11 – King Mahendra of Nepal (d. 1972)
- June 12
- June 13
- June 15 – Alberto Sordi, Italian actor (d. 2003)
- June 16
- June 17
- Patrick Duffy, English economist and president of the NATO Assembly
- Jacob H. Gilbert, American politician (d. 1981)
- Setsuko Hara, Japanese actress (d. 2015)
- Fran?ois Jacob, French biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2013)
- Peter Le Cheminant, Guernesiase air force commander (d. 2018)
- John Waddy, English author and army officer
- June 18
- June 19
- June 20
- June 21 – Hans Gerschwiler, Swiss figure skater (d. 2017)
- June 22
- June 23 – Saleh Ajeery, Kuwaiti astronomer
- June 25
- June 26 – Jean-Pierre Roy, Canadian Major League Baseball pitcher (d. 2014)
- June 27 – Fernando Riera, Chilean football player, manager (d. 2010)
- June 28 – Clarissa Eden, wife of British Prime Minister Anthony Eden
- June 29
- June 30
- July 1
- July 4
- July 5
- July 7
- July 10
- July 11
- July 12
- July 13
- July 14
- July 15
- July 16
- July 17
- July 18 – Dolph Sweet, American actor (d. 1985)
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- July 24 – Bella Abzug, American feminist politician (d. 1998)
- July 25
- July 27 – Howard Hibbett, American translator (d. 2019)
- July 28 – Lea Padovani, Italian film actress (d. 1991)
- July 30 – Lady Brigid Guinness of the United Kingdom (d. 1995)
- July 31 – Ndabaningi Sithole, Zimbabwean politician (d. 2000)
- August 1
- August 2 – Hugh Hickling, English lawyer, colonial civil servant, law academic and author (d. 2007)
- August 3
- August 4
- August 5
- August 6
- August 7
- August 8
- August 9 – Milton G. Henschel, American member of the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses, 5th President of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society (d. 2003)
- August 10
- August 11 – Florence Bjelke-Petersen, Australian politician, writer (d. 2017)
- August 12 – Aidan Maloney, Canadian politician, executive (d. 2018)
- August 13 – Neville Brand, American actor, highly decorated World War II combat soldier (d. 1992)
- August 15 – Prince Konstantin of Bavaria (d. 1969)
- August 16 – Charles Bukowski, American writer (d. 1994)
- August 17 – Maureen O'Hara, Irish-American actress (d. 2015)
- August 18
- August 20 – Boris Braun, Croatian university professor and Holocaust survivor (d. 2018)
- August 21 – Christopher Robin Milne, English author, bookseller (d. 1996)
- August 22 – Ray Bradbury, American science fiction writer (d. 2012)
- August 23 – Jim Leavelle, American detective (d. 2019)
- August 24 – Herbert Haft, American owner of Dart Drugs Chain (d. 2004)
- August 26
- August 27 – Baptiste Manzini, American football player (d. 2008)
- August 28 – Jaime de Almeida, Brazilian football player, manager (d. 1973)
- August 29
- August 30 – Ali Sabri, Egyptian politician, 32nd Prime Minister of Egypt (d. 1991)
- September 1
- September 2 – Mónica Echeverría, Chilean journalist, writer, actress and a Literature professor (d. 2020)
- September 3
- September 4 – Catherine Bennett, Canadian female professional baseball player
- September 6 – Lawrence LeShan, American psychologist, educator and author
- September 7 – Al Caiola, American guitarist, composer, arranger (d. 2016)
- September 9 – Joan Neiman, Canadian senator
- September 10
- September 12
- September 13 – Alan Sagner, American public servant, political fundraiser (d. 2018)
- September 14
- September 15 – Dave Garcia, American baseball coach, manager (d. 2018)
- September 17 – Marjorie Holt, American politician (d. 2018)
- September 18 – Jack Warden, American actor (d. 2006)
- September 19 – Roger Angell, American journalist and author
- September 21
- September 22
- September 23
- September 24
- September 25 – Anne Triola, American actress, singer and musician
- September 27 – William Conrad, American actor, film director and producer (d. 1994)
- September 29 – Peter D. Mitchell, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1992)
- September 30 – Milton P. Rice, American politician (d. 2018)
- Unknown – Wu Ningkun, Chinese academic (d. 2019)
- October 1
- October 2 – Tun Tin, 6th Prime Minister of Burma
- October 4
- October 5
- October 8 – Frank Herbert, American author (d. 1986)
- October 9
- October 10
- October 13
- October 15 – Mario Puzo, American author (d. 1999)
- October 17
- October 19 – Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Indian founder of the Swadhyay Movement (d. 2003)
- October 20
- October 21 – Ruth Terry, American singer, actress (d. 2016)
- October 22 – Timothy Leary, American psychologist, author and proponent of LSD (d. 1996)
- October 23 – Vern Stephens, American baseball player (d. 1968)
- October 25 – J. Denis Summers-Smith, English ornithologist and mechanical engineer
- October 26
- October 27
- October 29
- October 31
- November 2 – Kim Chol-man, North Korean politician and military official (d. 2018)
- November 3 – Oodgeroo Noonuccal, Australian political activist, artist, and educator (d. 1993)
- November 4 – Val Heim, American Major League Baseball player (d. 2019)
- November 5
- November 8
- November 10 – Ted Luscombe, Bishop of Brechin
- November 11
- November 12 – Josip Boljkovac, Croatian politician (d. 2014)
- November 13
- November 14 – Mary Greyeyes, first First Nations woman to join the Canadian Armed Forces (d. 2011)
- November 15
- November 16
- November 17 – George Dunning, Canadian-born cartoon director, animator (d. 1979)
- November 18 – Mustafa Khalil, 40th Prime Minister of Egypt (d. 2008)
- November 19 – Gene Tierney, American actress (d. 1991)
- November 21
- November 22 – Anne Crawford, British actress (d. 1956)
- November 23
- November 24 – Jorge Mistral, Spanish-Mexican actor (d. 1972)
- November 25
- November 27 – Buster Merryfield, British actor (d. 1999)
- November 28 – Patrick Campbell Rodger, Scottish Anglican bishop (d. 2002)
- November 29
- November 30 – Virginia Mayo, American actress (d. 2005)
- December 1
- December 5 – Poldine Carlo, American author (d. 2018)
- December 6
- December 8 – Ivar Martinsen, Norwegian speed skater (d. 2018)
- December 9 – Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, 49th Prime Minister of Italy, 10th President of Italy (d. 2016)
- December 10 – Stanko Todorov, Bulgarian communist politician (d. 1996)
- December 12
- December 13
- December 14
- December 15
- December 16 – John Hale Stutesman, American politician
- December 17 – Ewa Paradies, German Nazi war criminal (d. 1946)
- December 18 – Gianni Di Venanzo, Italian cinematographer (d. 1966)
- December 19
- December 21
- December 23 – Tim Elkington, English Royal Air Force pilot (d. 2019)
- December 24
- December 28
- December 29
- December 30 – Jack Lord, American actor (d. 1998)
- December 31 – Rex Allen, American actor, singer, songwriter (d. 1999)
- January 1 – Zygmunt Gorazdowski, Polish Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1845)
- January 2 – Paul Adam, French writer (b. 1862)
- January 3 – Zygmunt Janiszewski, Polish mathematician (b. 1888)
- January 4
- January 6
- January 7 – Sir Edmund Barton, 1st Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1849)
- January 8 – Josef Josephi, Polish-born singer and actor (b. 1852)
- January 9 – Ella Maria Dietz Clymer, American actress and author (b. 1847)
- January 14 – John Francis Dodge, American automobile manufacturer (b. 1864)
- January 18 – Giovanni Capurro, Italian poet (b. 1859)
- January 22 – Georg Lurich, Estonian Greco-Roman wrestler, strongman (b. 1876)
- January 24
- January 25 – Jeanne Hébuterne, French artist and model, common-law wife of Amedeo Modigliani (b. 1898)
- February 2 – Field E. Kindley, American World War I aviator (b. 1896)
- February 3 – Frank Brown, 42nd Governor of Maryland (b. 1846)
- February 6 – Augustus F. Goodridge, Canadian merchant, politician (b. 1839)
- February 7 – Alexander Kolchak, Russian naval commander (b. 1874)
- February 8 – Richard Dehmel, German poet, writer (b. 1863)
- February 11 – Gaby Deslys, French dancer, actress & spy (b. 1881)
- February 15
- February 20
- February 27 – William Sherman Jennings, Governor of Florida (b. 1863)
- March 1
- March 3 – Theodor Philipsen, Danish painter (b. 1840)
- March 4 – Roswell P. Bishop, U.S. Congressman from Michigan (b. 1843)
- March 7 – Jaan Poska, Estonian barrister, politician (b. 1866)
- March 11 – Julio Garavito Armero, Colombian astronomer (b. 1865)
- March 15 – Rudolf Berthold, German World War I fighter ace (b. 1891)
- March 21 – Evelina Haverfield British suffragette (b. 1867)
- March 26
- March 31
- April 1 – Walter Simon, German philanthropist (b. 1857)
- April 8
- April 10 – Moritz Cantor, German mathematical historian (b. 1829)
- April 12 – Walter Edwards, American film director (b. 1870)
- April 21 – Maria L. Sanford, American educator (b. 1836)
- April 26 – Srinivasa Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (b. 1887)
- May 1 – Princess Margaret of Connaught, Crown Princess of Sweden (b. 1882)
- May 8 – Johan Reinhold Sahlberg, Finnish entomologist
- May 10 – John Wesley Hyatt, American inventor (b. 1837)
- May 11
- May 15
- May 16
- May 21
- May 23 – Svetozar Boroevi?, Austro-Hungarian field marshal (b. 1856)
- May 28 – Hardwicke Rawnsley, English clergyman, poet, writer of hymns and conservationist (b. 1851)
- May 30 – George Ernest Morrison, Australian adventurer (b. 1862)
- June 2 – Francisco Plancarte y Navarrete, Mexican archaeologist and Archbishop of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Monterrey (b. October 21, 1856)
- June 5
- June 6 – James Dunsmuir, Canadian politician (b. 1851)
- June 13 – Essad Pasha, Prime Minister of Albania (b. 1863)
- June 14
- June 18
- June 20
- June 27 – Adolphe-Basile Routhier, Canadian judge, author and lyricist (b. 1839)
- July 1 – Delfim Moreira, 10th President of Brazil (b. 1868)
- July 2 – William Louis Marshall, American general, engineer (b. 1846)
- July 3 – William Crawford Gorgas, American Army surgeon (b. 1854)
- July 5 – Max Klinger, German painter, sculptor (b. 1857)
- July 10 – John Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher, British admiral (b. 1841)
- July 11 – Empress Eugénie of France (b. 1826)
- February 13 – Jo?o Maria Correia Ayres de Campos, 1st Count of Ameal, Portuguese politician and antiquarian (b. 1847)
- July 14 – Albert Keller, German painter (b. 1844)
- July 17
- July 18 – Prince Joachim of Prussia (b. 1890)
- July 22 – William Kissam Vanderbilt, American heir (b. 1849)
- August 1
- August 2 – Ormer Locklear, American stunt pilot, film actor (b. 1891)
- August 8 – Eduard Birnbaum, Polish-born German cantor (b. 1855)
- August 9 – Sir Samuel Griffith, Australian politician and judge (b. 1845)
- August 10
- August 12 – Hermann Struve, Russian-born astronomer (b. 1854)
- August 16
- August 17 – Ray Chapman, American baseball player (b. 1891)
- August 21 – Paul W. Abt, American businessman and politician
- August 22 – Anders Zorn, Swedish painter (b. 1860)
- August 26 – James Wilson, Scottish-born American politician (b. 1835)
- August 31 – Wilhelm Wundt, German physiologist, psychologist (b. 1832)
- September 7 – Simon-Napoléon Parent, Premier of Quebec (b. 1855)
- September 10 – Olive Thomas, American actress (b. 1894)
- September 18 – Robert Beaven, Canadian politician (b. 1836)
- September 24 – Peter Carl Fabergé, Russian jeweler (b. 1846)
- September 25 – Jacob Schiff, German-born banker, philanthropist (b. 1847)
- September 30 – William Wilfred Sullivan, Canadian journalist, politician and jurist (b. 1843)
- October 2
- October 5 – William Heinemann, English publisher (b. 1863)
- October 7 – Yves Delage, French zoologist (b. 1854)
- October 10 – Hudson Stuck, English mountaineer (b. 1865)
- October 17
- October 24 – Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (b. 1853)
- October 25 – Alexander of Greece, Greek king (b. 1893)
- November 1 – Kevin Barry, Irish republican (hanged) (b. 1902)
- November 2
- November 3 – Warren Terhune, United States Navy Commander and 13th Governor of American Samoa (b. 1869)
- November 4 – Ludwig Struve, Russian astronomer (b. 1858)
- November 9 – Alberto Blest Gana, Chilean novelist, diplomat (b. 1830)
- November 13 – Luc-Olivier Merson, French painter, illustrator (b. 1846)
- November 21 – Michael Hogan, Irish Gaelic footballer and activist, one of 14 men killed in the Croke Park Massacre by British paramilitary forces (b. 1896)
- November 22 – Manuel Pérez y Curis, Uruguayan poet (b. 1884)
- November 23 – George Callaghan, British admiral (b. 1852)
- November 25
- November 27 – Alexius Meinong, Austrian philosopher (b. 1853)
- November 30 – Eugene W. Chafin, American politician (b. 1852)
- December 11 – Olive Schreiner, South African writer (b. 1855)
- December 12 – Edward Gawler Prior, Canadian mining engineer and politician (b. 1854)
- December 14 – George Gipp, American football player (b. 1895)
- December 23 – Cayetano Arellano, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines under the American Civil Government (b. 1847)
- Physics – Charles édouard Guillaume
- Chemistry – Walther Nernst
- Medicine – Schack August Steenberg Krogh
- Literature – Knut Hamsun
- Peace – Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois
- Beswick, Emma (June 28, 2019). . Euronews. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- . Today.az. July 3, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- . NY Times. The New York Times Company. January 13, 1920. from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- Kuntz, Tom (November 14, 2001). . NY Times. The New York Times Company. p. 36. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- Cleeton, Christa (August 1, 2012). . Mudd Manuscript Library Blog. The Trustees of Princeton University. Princeton University. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- N?thling, Kol C.J., Martins, Maj du P. (1990). Kroniek van die Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag (1920-1990), (1st ed.). Direktoraat Openbare Betrekkinge, SAW. Uitgewer: Staatsdrukkery, Pretoria. Gedruk deur Promedia Drukkers, Posbus 255, Silverton, 0127.
- Declaration of 1 November 1922.
- Cottrell, Peter (2009). The War for Ireland, 1913-1923. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-9966.
- Woodward, David R. (September 2004). . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:. Retrieved December 7, 2007. (subscription or required)
- Lewis, Danny. . Smithsonian. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
- Carlisle, Rodney (2007). . Facts on File. p. . ISBN 0-8160-6061-4.
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- O'Farrell, Patrick (2004). . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Yugoslavia", in The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1936 (Macmillan and Co., 1936) p1388
- (Japanese language) Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. . ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Based on its genetic history. . University of Oxford. October 3, 2014. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- (in Spanish). La Historia de Mexico. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
- [Francisco Plancarte y Navarrete, Pioneer of National Archaeology] (in Spanish). Consejo Ciudadano de la Cronica de Zamora. September 8, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
Primary sources and year books
- , Comprehensive coverage of world and national affairs, 844 pp